Callisthenes of Olynthus was born 360 BC and died in 327 BC. He was an ancient Greek historian best known for his influential history of Greece. Callisthenes was appointed to attend Alexander the Great as historian, on the recommendation of his uncle Aristotle, who was Alexander’s previous tutor.

In 327 BC, Callisthenes offended Alexander, who had proclaimed himself divine and demanded that Greeks prostrate themselves before him in adoration, which is the custom of proskynesis. Callisthenes led the opposition to this. He said that Alexander was 'worthy of all honours appropriate for men' but he said the 'divine honours were not offered by the Greeks even to Heracles himself, while he was still alive'. Alexander was annoyed at Callisthenes for what he said but most Macedonians agreed with him so 'he told the Macedonians not to concern themselves any further about obeisance'. After this he was falsely accused of conspiracy, and was executed. His death was commemorated by his friend Theophrastus in Callisthenes; or, a Treatise on Grief.

Callisthenes wrote a 10-volume history of Greece. His works survive only in fragments. It’s known that he alluded to the story of Alexander’s divine birth and may have been the first to do so.

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Callisthenes of Olynthus, philosopher and historian, accompanied Alexander the Great to India.